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張培基講得翻譯理論

第一講 翻譯原則簡介



一、教學目的:了解基本的翻譯原則和翻譯研究的問題

二、教學過程:

1.翻譯的定義和內涵:(Definition and Connotation)

Translation is an art/ science/craft?

2. 中國幾位翻譯家的理論(influential translation principles):

嚴復:信達雅--- faithfulness/expressiveness/elegance. The “three character guide” is regarded as a plumb-line of long standing to measure the professional level of translating.

傅雷:神似---spiritual conformity. Emphasizing the reproduction of the spirit of the flavor of the original.強調原作神韻再現。

錢鐘書:化境---sublimed adaptation. Focus on the translator’s smooth and idiomatic Chinese version for the sake of the Chinese reader.

劉重德:信、達、切---faithfulness/expressiveness/closeness.

3.中國翻譯史上的論爭:

魯迅:寧信而不順---rather to be faithful than smooth。 目的:引入英文句式的表達法

梁實秋、趙景深:寧順而不信---rather to be smooth than faithful 目的:可讀性強,便于交流。

4.直譯與意譯:

直譯---literal translation 意譯:free translation

直譯的例子:crocodile tears鱷魚的眼淚; armed to the teeth武裝到牙齒; chain reaction連鎖反應; gentlemen’s agreement君子協定; one country, two systems 一國兩制;

The three religions and the nine schools of thought 三教九流; paper tiger 紙老虎; Breath one’s last---斷氣; go to one’s external rest---安息; the long sleep---長眠; see Marx 見馬克思;

Go west 上西天; go to heaven 上天堂; blow out the candles 吹燈拔蠟

kick the bucket 蹬腿: You can kick everything but you can not kick the bucket

直譯不等于死譯(dead translation):

街道婦女應動員起來打掃衛生:Women in the street should be called on to do some cleaning.

“In the street” should be replaced by “in the community”.

她一大早起床,進城,見到了她的公爹:She got up early, went to the town and saw her public father. Public father should be father in law.

意譯的例子:It rains cats and dogs / at sixes and sevens /Adam’s apple

句子比較:Little fish does not eat big fish

直譯:小魚不吃大魚 意譯:胳膊擰不過大腿

試譯:天有不測風云,人有旦夕禍福:

直譯:Storms gather without warning in nature and bad luck befalls men overnight.

意譯:The weather and human life are both unpredictable

有人說,翻譯是帶著鐐銬跳舞(translation is like dancing in fetters);還有人說,翻譯像女人,忠實的不漂亮,漂亮的不忠實。實際上,忠實與通順的關系是辯證關系。

5.歸化與異化(domestication/adaptation or foreignization / alienation)

歸化的翻譯在理論上是把語言看作交際工具;在實踐上,強調通俗易

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